The largest city of upper
Moesia, Viminacium, was formed on the right bank of the river Mlava, close
to its confluence with the Danube, near he present-day town of Kostolac.
It is the area of he fertile plains of Stig. Owing to excellent communications,
especially the Danube as well as its tributaries, the Morava, the Mlava
and the Pek, Viminacium was of primary strategic importance for the Roman
Viminacium was founded following long wars against the indigenous population
which the Romans waged during the 1st century BC. With the arrival of legion
VII Claudia from Dalmatia during 60's and the 70's, the construction of
a stone camp in Viminacium commenced. Viminacium quickly grew into a city,
witch was made official by declaring it a municipium during the reign of
Hadrian, in the year 117. It is mentioned in various inscriptions s MVNICIVM
AELIVM VIMINACIVM. A change of the legal status of Viminacium took place
during the reign of Gordian III: it became a colony and its inhabitants
became full Roman citizens. The consequences of this event are numerous:
the land holdings of Viminacium probably expanded to include the whole of
Stig and Pincum with the mine. The most significant privilege of a colony
was to mint its own coins. Viminacium saw the period of its largest political
and economic crisis in the 3nd century. The massive invasions of the Goths
and other barbaric tribes from the north-east during the 4th century contributed
to general insecurity along this part of Danube. Still, it was only after
the attacks of the Huns that these parts would be left ravaged. Viminacium
was destroyed and its population was partly enslaved and party displaced.
The fortress was reconstructed during Justinian's reign (526-565). Viminacium
ceased to exist during the 7th century, under the attacks of the Slavs.
Camp of Viminacium
When it was promoted into a colony, in the year 239,
during the reign of Gordian III, Viminacium acquired the right to mint
its own copper money. The local mint operated from the year 239/240 to
254/255. There were interruptions in the years 248/249 and 253/254, probably
due to hindrances in ore supplies to the mint, caused by an unstable military
and political situation.
Viminacium coins bore the following inscriptions on the reverse side:
P(rovincial) M(oesia) S(uperior), Col(onia) Vim(inacium), and, below:
An(no) and the number of local era, from I to XVI, excluding the years
X and XV, when no minting took place. As a rule, the reverse featured
the motif of a female clad in a long dress with a belt (a personification
of Viminacium or the province), holding her hands over a bull and a lion,
the symbols of Legion VII Claudia and III Flavia. The observe featured
the busts of emperors, wearing a laurel wreath.
Aside from Gordian III, yhe following rulers also minted the coins in
Viminacium: Philip I, Philip II; Otacilia Severa; Trajan Decius; Herennia
Etruscilla; Hereninnius Etruscus; Hostilian; Trebonianus Gallus; Volusianus;
Aemilian; Valerian I; Mariniana (commemorative) and Gallienus.
For more information: Viminacium, the capital of the roman province
of upper moesia
Dragan Spasic - Djuric, National Museum Pozarevac, 2002